Chris Morris of BBC Reality Check has experienced it in detail and draws the most important points of the deal and what they mean. This angers Brexit supporters, especially since there is no guarantee of getting out of this backstop if the EU does not agree. The Protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland was the most difficult part of the draft agreement to be negotiated, and it was published and prompted a series of government resignations. The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the political declaration and replaced the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” with respect to labour standards. According to Sam Lowe, a trade fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the amendment excludes labour standards from dispute resolution mechanisms.  In addition, the Equal Competition Mechanism has been postponed from the legally binding withdrawal agreement to the political declaration, and the line of the political statement that “the United Kingdom will consider taking into account alignment with trade union rules in the relevant areas” has been removed.  The EU withdrawal agreement is a legally binding document. It contains conditions for the UK`s withdrawal from the EU of more than 500 pages, including the first agreements on citizens` rights, the UK`s financial commitments to the EU and the Northern Ireland Protocol, which establish provisions for maintaining an open border on the island of Ireland. The withdrawal agreement was adopted by the European Council on 19 October 2019 in its final form, which was confirmed in the declaration that a political agreement had been reached and that the United Kingdom had reached an agreement with the European Union in accordance with Article 50, paragraph 2, of the Treaty on European Union. On the issue of the Irish border, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a position of withdrawal which will only come into force in the absence of effective alternative provisions before the expiry of the transition period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out. Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union.
The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed.  On 19 October, a statement was also made to Parliament that a political agreement had been reached. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement the largest vote against the British government in history.  The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day.  On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons.  A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevented British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on by the House of Commons.    An abbreviated version of the withdrawal agreement, in which the annex political statement had been withdrawn, consisted of the test of “substantial amendments,” so that a third vote was held on 29 March 2019, but was rejected by 58 votes.  This is an example of how negotiations on a temporary customs union would inevitably create a large number of complications – and a reminder of the harsh likelihood of negotiations on a future trade agreement.