Agreement Between Communicating Devices Are Called

Standards bodies affected by the communication protocols include the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The IETF manages the protocols used on the Internet. The IEEE controls many software and hardware protocols in the electronics industry for commercial and consumer equipment. The ITU is an umbrella organization of telecommunications engineers who design the public telephone network (TVN) as well as many radio communication systems. NMEA standards are used for ship electronics. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) produces protocols and standards for web technologies. The telephone network is a common example of duplex communication. When two people communicate on a telephone line, they can talk and listen at the same time. The full duplex mode is used when two-way communication is required all the time. However, the capacity of the channel must be divided between the two directions. LANs are designed to share resources between pc or workstation.

The resources to share may include material (for example. B a printer), software (for example. B an application program) or data. Just as organizations create websites to allow global access to information about their business, they also create internal websites to provide employees with information about the organization. This internal set of web pages is called Intranet. Intranet websites are not accessible to people outside the company. Indeed, these pages would appear as “indecent” if an employee tried to access them from outside the corporate network. At the time of Internet development, abstract stratification proved to be a successful design approach for both the compiler project and the operating system project, and, given the similarities between programming languages and communication protocols, initially monolithic network programs were broken down into cooperating protocols. [22] This is where the concept of multilayer protocols, which today form the basis of the design of the protocol, was born. [23] Communication systems operate simultaneously. An important aspect of simultaneous programming is the synchronization of software to receive and transmit communication messages in the appropriate sequencing.